By Krista Ratcliffe
One of many few authors to outline and concentrate on feminist theories of rhetoric, Krista Ratcliffe takes Bathsheba’s trouble as her controlling metaphor: "I have the emotions of a woman," says Bathsheba Everdene in Hardy’s faraway from the Madding Crowd, "but purely the language of men." even supposing men and women have assorted relationships to language and to one another, conventional theories of rhetoric don't foreground such gender changes, Ratcliffe notes. She argues that feminist theories of rhetoric are wanted if we're to acknowledge, validate, and handle Bathsheba’s difficulty. Ratcliffe argues that simply because feminists as a rule haven't conceptualized their language theories from the viewpoint of rhetoric and composition experiences, rhetoric and composition students needs to build feminist theories of rhetoric by way of utilizing various interwoven techniques: recuperating misplaced or marginalized texts; rereading conventional rhetoric texts; extrapolating rhetorical theories from such nonrhetoric texts as letters, diaries, essays, cookbooks, and different assets; and developing their very own theories of rhetoric. targeting the 3rd alternative, Ratcliffe explores ways that the rhetorical theories of Virginia Woolf, Mary Daly, and Adrienne wealthy might be extrapolated from their Anglo-American feminist texts via exam of the interrelationship among what those authors write and the way they write. In different phrases, she extrapolates feminist theories of rhetoric from interwoven claims and textual techniques. through inviting Woolf, Daly, and wealthy into the rhetorical traditions and by way of modeling the extrapolation strategy/methodology on their writings, Ratcliffe exhibits how feminist texts approximately ladies, language, and tradition will be reread from the vantage element of rhetoric to build feminist theories of rhetoric. She rereads Anglo-American feminist texts either to show their white privilege and to rescue them from fees of na?vet? and essentialism. She additionally outlines the pedagogical implications of those 3 feminist theories of rhetoric, hence contributing to ongoing discussions of feminist pedagogies. conventional rhetorical theories are gender-blind, ignoring the truth that ladies and males occupy various cultural areas and that those areas are additional complex by way of race and sophistication, Ratcliffe explains. Arguing that matters equivalent to who can speak, the place you will speak, and the way you can still speak emerge in way of life yet are frequently ignored in rhetorical theories, Ratcliffe rereads Roland Barthes’ "The previous Rhetoric" to teach the restrictions of classical rhetorical theories for ladies and feminists. getting to know areas for feminist theories of rhetoric within the rhetorical traditions, Ratcliffe invitations readers not just to question how girls were situated as part of— and aside from—these traditions but additionally to discover the consequences for rhetorical historical past, conception, and pedagogy. In extrapolating rhetorical theories from 3 feminist writers no longer ordinarily thought of rhetoricians, Ratcliffe creates a brand new version for reading women’s paintings. She situates the rhetorical theories of Woolf, Daly, and wealthy inside of present discussions approximately feminist pedagogy, really the interweavings of serious considering, analyzing, and writing. Ratcliffe concludes with an program to instructing.
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Additional info for Anglo-American feminist challenges to the rhetorical traditions: Virginia Woolf, Mary Daly, Adrienne Rich
I believe, for instance, that Aristotelian rhetorical theory is so pervasive in our culture that it is inscribed on and in our bodies and that, consequently, we should understand it and use it for our own ends. Yet we must also be honest about its limitations; for example, its genderblindness. Page 10 My emphasis on challenges is, second of all, not a nurturing move, which may seem strange, perhaps not supportive enough, for some feminists and nonfeminists alike. But my goal is to confront conflicts while respecting my readers and students, not to create a "safe space" in theory or in pedagogy.
Well," she continued, "I just told Ramona that you read about women and get mad. " Once again, my mother proved herself more sensible than I. " I cannot conclude without offering thanks to the three feminists whose words have inspired this project. Virginia Woolf reminds me that to be an effective writer/teacher I must kill the Angel in my house, the good-girl voice that forever urges me to please. Mary Daly continually re-minds me to Sin Big, that is, to BE. And Adrienne Rich reminds me that the source of my pain may also be the source of my power.
And my thanks to Elizabeth Barnett for the epigraph to my book: "An Ancient Gesture" by Edna St. Vincent Millay. From Collected Poems, HarperCollins. Copyright © 1954, 1982 by Norma Millay Ellis. Reprinted by permission of Elizabeth Barnett, literary executor. " Virginia Woolf, "Men and Women" For centuries, Bathsheba's dilemma has troubled women differently in their daily lives, affecting their listening and speaking as well as their reading and writing. 1 But this dilemma need not be read as suggesting that women and men literally speak different languages.
Anglo-American feminist challenges to the rhetorical traditions: Virginia Woolf, Mary Daly, Adrienne Rich by Krista Ratcliffe