By Elizabeth Welsh (ed.)
Sedation and anaesthesia are a vital a part of veterinary perform. The protocols and strategies concerned are frequently complicated and fluctuate significantly from animal to animal. The veterinary nurse has a pivotal function in anaesthesia, being at once concerned sooner than, in the course of and after the anaesthetic interval.
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Additional resources for Anaesthesia for Veterinary Nurses
Antidiuretic hormone is released from the pituitary gland to stimulate resorption of water and electrolytes, which will also maintain blood pressure. As shock progresses, these changes cannot maintain blood volume. The heart rate continues to increase and vasoconstriction of the vascular beds of the skin and muscle takes place. Fluid from the interstitial space moves into plasma, resulting in clinical dehydration. Blood supply to heart, kidney and central nervous system is also impaired. If the loss in blood volume continues then the animal will develop irreversible shock.
Anaesthesia often causes hypotension, reducing the blood supply to organs such as the kidney, damaging the kidneys and impairing excretion of anaesthetic agents. Blood supply to the lungs will also be affected during anaesthesia because the animal will be recumbent. This affects the ventilation : perfusion ratio and hence the uptake of gaseous agents, so it is important to monitor blood pressure during anaesthesia and ensure that it remains within normal range. Blood–brain barrier The blood–brain barrier restricts the movement of molecules into the brain.
Conversely, during hypoventilation, respiratory acidosis will result. If an anaesthetised animal breathes in carbon dioxide (for example, if there is a problem in carbon dioxide removal in a closed breathing system) the animal will hyperventilate to try to remove the carbon dioxide. If carbon dioxide levels continue to increase so that the level of carbon dioxide in the alveoli reaches that of the bloodstream, it becomes difﬁcult for the animal to excrete carbon dioxide. This will result in a state of hypercapnia.
Anaesthesia for Veterinary Nurses by Elizabeth Welsh (ed.)