By J. L. Wright
This can be the fourth in a chain of person courses on Zambian languages and grammar. The purpose of the sequence is to spice up the meagre scholarship and availability of academic fabrics on Zambian languages, which grew to become fairly in pressing in 1996, following the choice of the Zambian executive to revert to the coverage of utilizing neighborhood languages as media of guide. Kaonde (or extra accurately Kikaonde) is spoken within the a part of the North-Western Province of Zambia to the east of the Kabompo River, in adjoining components of Mumbwa and Kaoma Districts to the south, and within the Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo to the North.
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Additional resources for An Outline of Kikaonde Grammar
Ishrab! ’i9mal! ’iTla9! ’inzil! ’is’al! g. byu-). 2 Replace by the vowel /u/ when final vowel is /u/; otherwise replace by /i/. 3 Feminine: add suffix /ee/. Plural: add suffix /oo/. Masculine singular ’uktub! ’uktubee! Feminine Plural (m. ) write ’uktuboo! Note Two important exceptions: eat kul! kulee! take khud! khudee! kuloo! khudoo! —maa or laa tuktub (/ee/, /oo/) Rule Take the non-past 2 m. sing, (without the /b/ prefix) and place before it maa or laa (this applies to derived-form verbs also).
G. ’iHmarr means ‘to become red’, from ’ahmar, red. ) this m. f. Singular haada haadi Plural haadol haadol that m. f. haadaak haadeek haadolak haadolik (or as above) The above are the pronoun forms. This is a book—haada kitaab These are foreigners—haadol ’ajaanib Note This is the book—haadal-kitaab (The intonation indicates that this is a sentence with a predicate in the definite form. ) When used as adjectives all forms of this can be replaced by hal. For example: These boys are Lebanese—hal-’awlaad lubnaanee-een In Lebanon, especially, a double-demonstrative is frequently used.
Sing. FormIV ’adaar (administer) VII ’inqaad (be led) VIII ’irtaa’H (relax, rest) X ’istajaab (respond LESSON SIX to) Form IV VII 2 m. sing. ’ada/irt ’inqa (d/t)t ’irtaHt (a/i and d/t imply free variation) 47 VIII X ’istaja/ibt Non-past tense: 3 m. sing. 2 m. sing. ) Exercise Conjugate the above verbs fully. —haat! —sheel! (/ee/, /oo/) IMPERATIVES These are formed from the non-past, and always have the long vowel of the non-past. go sleep bring see Past raaH naam jaab shaaf Non-past byirooH byinaam byijeeb byishoof Imperative rooH!
An Outline of Kikaonde Grammar by J. L. Wright