By Jeroen van Craenenbroeck
Within the Nineteen Eighties generative grammar famous that useful fabric is ready to undertaking syntactic constitution in conformity with the X-bar-format. This perception quickly resulted in a substantial raise within the stock of useful projections. the fundamental inspiration at the back of this line of theorizing, which works via the identify of cartography, is that sentence constitution should be represented as a template of linearly ordered positions, every one with their very own syntactic and semantic import. lately, despite the fact that, a few difficulties were raised for this procedure. for instance, definite combos of syntactic parts can't be linearly ordered. In gentle of such difficulties a couple of substitute bills were explored. a few of them suggest a brand new (often interface-related) set off for stream, whereas others search replacement technique of accounting for varied notice order styles. those possible choices to cartography don't shape a homogeneous workforce, nor has there up to now been a discussion board the place those rules might be in comparison and faced with each other. This quantity fills that hole. It deals a assorted and in-depth view at the place taken by means of a considerable variety of researchers within the box this day on what's most likely some of the most hotly debated and debatable matters in present-day generative grammar.
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Note that A’-scrambling can also affect categories other than DPs, including adverbials. Some speakers of Dutch marginally allow A-scrambling of a direct object across an indirect object, a possibility more generally available in German. The judgments reported here are from speakers who reject such scrambling. The proposal outlined here constitutes a correction on Neeleman and Van de Koot (2008), where it is assumed that A’-scrambling marks a comment or a background rather than a domain of contrast.
These should presumably include projections hosting topics and foci, as in Rizzi (1997). On this view of syntax, one would at first sight expect universal ordering restrictions between any two constituents with distinct syntactic functions. Of course, reality is more complex and the way this additional complexity is dealt with in cartography is by allowing languages to vary in the extent to which movement takes place in overt or covert syntax. However, it can be demonstrated that this is insufficient to deal with the distribution of topics and foci in Dutch.
A first argument is that it correctly follows from (35) that new information and contrastive foci are in complementary distribution: any sentence can contain only a single focus because all foci are licensed in clause-final position. For example, a locational PP like ‘in the concert hall’ can appear in final position on the condition that it is interpreted as new information focus (see (38a)). This is no longer possible when another category is fronted as a contrastive focus. The string in (38b) is only grammatical if ‘in the concert hall’ is interpreted as part of the background, in which case it remains unaccented and presumably precedes the trace of ‘the jazz pianist’.
Alternatives to Cartography by Jeroen van Craenenbroeck