By Celia E. Naylor
Forcibly faraway from their houses within the overdue 1830s, Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, and Chickasaw Indians introduced their African-descended slaves with them alongside the path of Tears and resettled in Indian Territory, present-day Oklahoma. Celia E. Naylor vividly charts the stories of enslaved and loose African Cherokees from the path of Tears to Oklahoma's access into the Union in 1907. conscientiously extracting the voices of former slaves from interviews and mining various assets in Oklahoma, she creates an enticing narrative of the composite lives of African Cherokees. Naylor explores how slaves hooked up with Indian groups not just via Indian customs--language, garments, and food--but additionally via bonds of kinship.
Examining this tricky and emotionally charged heritage, Naylor demonstrates that the "red over black" dating used to be not more benign than "white over black." She offers new angles to conventional understandings of slave resistance and counters earlier romanticized rules of slavery within the Cherokee country. She additionally demanding situations modern racial and cultural conceptions of African-descended humans within the usa. Naylor unearths how black Cherokee identities advanced reflecting complicated notions approximately race, tradition, "blood," kinship, and nationality. certainly, Cherokee freedpeople's fight for acceptance and equivalent rights that begun within the 19th century keeps even this day in Oklahoma.
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Extra info for African Cherokees in Indian Territory: From Chattel to Citizens
Their disdain for Cherokee slavery and enslavers motivated them to break the shackles that bound them in Indian Territory. Indeed, antebellum re20 Introduction ward advertisements for runaway slaves in the Cherokee Nation remain one concrete form of evidence of resistance, often o√ering substantial information about the fugitive slaves and their experiences in Indian Territory. Enslaved African Cherokees in the Cherokee Nation employed various manifestations of resistance while living in nineteenth-century Indian Territory.
Other Indians who lived in the western portion of Indian Territory were the Wichitas, the Caddos, and a variety of Plains Indians. The vehement objections of Indian nations to removal did not deter the United States from its goal of Indian relocation. S. S. government initially relocated groups of Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, and Creeks to Arkansas Territory. ≤≤ These emigrants joined smaller groups of Cherokees who had moved to Arkansas beginning in the 1790s to circumvent European American encroachment.
Introduction labor by southeastern Indians as a way to develop and ‘‘civilize’’ Indian societies, as well as to bolster their integration in the southern slave economy. S. federal government contrived more elaborate and comprehensive plans to limit the Indian presence within the boundaries of the United States. With the uncompromising demands of European American settlers for land occupied by southeastern Indian nations, government leaders and o≈cials decided to remove these nations to a region west of the Mississippi River.
African Cherokees in Indian Territory: From Chattel to Citizens by Celia E. Naylor