Download PDF by George Hidy (Auth.): Aerosols. An Industrial and environmental science

By George Hidy (Auth.)

ISBN-10: 0123472601

ISBN-13: 9780123472601

ISBN-10: 0323142516

ISBN-13: 9780323142519

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2k for polyatomic g a s e s , w h e r e C vis the heat capacity at c o n s t a n t v o l u m e . 24 for air. 28b) Φ Η = 4vkgR(Ts - JooXl + CtKn)- , in analogy to E q . 27b). T h e formula for c t is given in E q . 14b). 5 Condensation and Evaporation. P e r h a p s t h e most widely u s e d ap­ plication of t h e h e a t a n d m a s s transfer relations c o n c e r n s t h e c o n d e n s a t i o n and evaporation of particles. Using M a x w e l l ' s equation, t h e g r o w t h in a quasistationary state of a p u r e spherical droplet in a s u p e r s a t u r a t e d v a p o r is estimated as w h e r e vmis t h e molecular v o l u m e of t h e condensing species, ρ is t h e v a p o r p r e s s u r e of A , a n d k is t h e B o l t z m a n n c o n s t a n t .

Differences in gas t e m p e r a t u r e or v a p o r concentration can induce particle motion. Electromagnetic radiation can also p r o d u c e m o v e m e n t . Such phoretic p r o c e s s e s w e r e observed experimen­ tally by the late nineteenth c e n t u r y . F o r e x a m p l e , in his experiments on particles, Tyndall (1870) described the cleaning of dust from air surrounding hot surfaces. This clearance m e c h a n i s m is associated with the thermal gradi­ ent established in the gas.

17) 26 2 The Dynamics of Small Particles The gradient (VJCA )°o is taken at a large distance from the particle surface. 25. 18) T h e coefficient σ- ΑΒis an empirical coefficient introduced by W a l d m a n n and Schmitt (1967) of the form )/(mA σ ΑΒ = 0 . 05(d A- dB )l(dA + dB ). This formula is based on experiments on particle motion of several different gases mixed with nitrogen. Values of σΑΒ range from - 0 . 1 0 to + 0 . 9 0 for the binary mixtures investigated by W a l d m a n n and Schmitt.

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Aerosols. An Industrial and environmental science by George Hidy (Auth.)

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