By Alan D. Wilson;John W. Nicholson
There was a failure to acknowledge acid-base cements as a unmarried, well-defined category of fabric. This ebook makes an attempt to therapy this case via unifying the topic and treating this variety of fabrics as a unmarried classification. Following a short old evaluation, an introductory bankruptcy defines those cements as fabrics which are shaped via reacting a simple powder with an acidic liquid to yield a salt-like matrix. the character of the cementation strategy and the cement-forming acids and bases are mentioned. different chapters are dedicated to the equipment of research, the constitution of water and easy polyelectrolyte conception.
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Extra resources for Acid-Base Cements: Their Biomedical and Industrial Applications (Chemistry of Solid State Materials)
1968b). Hard and soft acids and bases, HSAB. Part II. Underlying theories. Journal of Chemical Education, 45, 643-8. Read, H. H. (1948). Rutle/s Elements of Mineralogy, 24th edn. London: Thomas Murby & Co. Smith, D. C. (1968). A new dental cement. British Dental Journal, 125, 381-4. , Komarneni, S. & Roy, R. (1988). Dental cements: investigation of chemical bonding. Materials Research Bulletin, 23, 13-22. Usanovich, M. I. (1939). On acids and bases. Journal of General Chemistry (USSR), 9, 182-92.
Water circulates continuously in the environment by evaporation from the hydrosphere and subsequent precipitation from the atmosphere. This overall process is known as the hydrologic cycle. Reports estimate that the atmosphere contains about 6 x 1015 litres of water, and this is cycled some 37 times a year to give an annual total precipitation of 224 x 1015 litres (Franks, 1983; Nicholson, 1985). The bond lengths and bond angle for the water molecule are known very precisely following studies of the rotation-vibration spectra of water vapour, and also the vapour of the deuterated analogues of water, D2 O and HDO (Eisenberg & Kauzmann, 1969).
The liquid state is then viewed as a solid in which some degree of translational motion has become allowed, but with a structure still recognizable as being derived from that existing in the solid state (Franks, 1983). With the growth in application of the techniques of X-ray and neutron diffraction to the study of the liquid state, the latter approach has become increasingly favoured in recent years. In this section, rather than give a detailed account of theories of the liquid state, a more qualitative approach is adopted.
Acid-Base Cements: Their Biomedical and Industrial Applications (Chemistry of Solid State Materials) by Alan D. Wilson;John W. Nicholson