Download e-book for iPad: Accident Prone: A History of Technology, Psychology, and by John Burnham

By John Burnham

ISBN-10: 0226081176

ISBN-13: 9780226081175

Know-how calls for uniformity from humans who come upon it. humans encountering know-how, even though, vary from each other. Thinkers within the early 20th century, looking at the bleak effects of interactions among people and machines—death by means of vehicles or dismemberment through manufacturing facility equipment, for example—developed the assumption of coincidence proneness: the tendency of a selected individual to have extra injuries than most folks. In tracing this idea from its delivery to its disappearance on the finish of the 20th century, coincidence services bargains a distinct historical past of expertise concentrated no longer on ideas yet on their unintentional consequences.Here, John C. Burnham exhibits that because the desktop period advanced, the actual and fiscal influence of injuries coevolved with the increase of the assurance and traits in twentieth-century psychology. After global conflict I, psychologists decided that a few individuals are extra twist of fate companies than others. This designation signaled a shift in social procedure towards minimizing injuries by way of diverting specific humans clear of risky environments. via the Nineteen Sixties and Seventies, notwithstanding, the assumption of twist of fate proneness steadily declined, and engineers built new applied sciences to guard everybody, thereby introducing a hidden, yet radical, egalitarianism.            mendacity on the intersection of the background of expertise, the heritage of medication and psychology, and environmental heritage, coincidence services is an bold highbrow research of the delivery, progress, and decline of an idea that might curiosity a person who needs to appreciate how Western societies have grappled with the human charges of contemporary existence. (20091217)

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Additional info for Accident Prone: A History of Technology, Psychology, and Misfits of the Machine Age

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Marbe in his earlier formulations had used other familiar terms. As late as 1923, he did not use the term Unfallneigung when he reported on in- 39 40 ch a p t er 2 dustrial accident cases analyzed by his student, Nico Greiveldinger. There was, wrote Marbe at that time, a personal factor that made some people disposed (disponiert) to accidents. Accident-burdened individuals had different personalities (“die verschiedenen Persönlichkeiten der Unfälle erleidenden Individuen”). 15 Marbe’s definitive publication on accident proneness (Unfallneigung) was his book of 1926 summarizing his thinking.

51 It was not a big step to trying to match workers to their tasks. The studies of error in motor tasks therefore showed a bias toward fi nding appropriate workers. Frederic Lyman Wells, in using typewriting as an experimental task to study psychomotor errors in 1916, remarked that this was an extremely “industrial” task. 53 Originally, particularly in the nineteenth century, physiologists had investigated how work energy of the human body could suffer from fatigue. By the 1890s, some investigators were crossing over into mental fatigue and showing that physical and mental fatigue operated in the same continuum.

Turn-of-the-twentieth-century writers on physical education assumed that they were dealing with normal people or at least potentially normal people. Their goal therefore was to train children to develop in a normal manner or to offer exercises that would correct any imperfections in a person of any age. Before Accident Proneness Development was relatively straightforward. Infants and children went through stages of normal development in which they started out making clumsy movements, that is, they lacked “neuro-muscular” coordination.

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Accident Prone: A History of Technology, Psychology, and Misfits of the Machine Age by John Burnham

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